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Major Tests

The questions on data interpretation are asked mainly in four forms, Table charts, bar graphs, pie charts and line graphs. The various types of questions that are generally framed into these four types are summarised below.

A table chart showing the Expenditures of a Company (in Pesetas) per Annum Over the given Years with items of expenditure like salary, fuels and transport, bonus, interest on loans and taxes and then several questions are asked like What is the average amount of interest per year which the company had to pay during this period? or The total amount of bonus paid by the company during the given period is approximately what percent of the total amount of salary paid during this period? or Total expenditure on all these items in 1998 was approximately what percent of the total expenditure in 2002? etc.

A table chart showing the number of Candidates Appeared and Qualified in a Competitive Examination from Different States Over the Years. and then several questions are asked like Total number of candidates qualified from all the states together in 1997 is approximately what percentage of the total number of candidates qualified from all the states together in 1998? or What is the average candidates who appeared from State Q during the given years? or In which of the given years the number of candidates appeared from State P has maximum percentage of qualified candidates? etc.

A table chart showing the percentage of marks obtained by seven students in six different subjects in an examination and then several questions are asked like What are the average marks obtained by all the seven students in Physics? (rounded off to two digit after decimal) or The number of students who obtained 60% and above marks in all subjects is? or What was the aggregate of marks obtained by Sajal in all the six subjects? etc.

A table chart showing the classification of 100 students based on the marks obtained by them in physics and chemistry in an examination and then several questions are asked like What is the different between the number of students passed with 30 as cut-off marks in Chemistry and those passed with 30 as cut-off marks in aggregate? or If at least 60% marks in Physics are required for pursuing higher studies in Physics, how many students will be eligible to pursue higher studies in Physics? or The percentage of number of students getting at least 60% marks in Chemistry ove those getting at least 40% marks in aggregate, is approximately? etc.

A table chart showing the candidates appeared, qualified and scheduled in a competitive examination from five states Delhi, HP, UP, Punjab and Haryana over the years 1994 to 1998 and then several questions are asked like For which state the average number of candidates selected over the years is the maximum? or The percentage of candidates qualified from Punjab over those appeared from Punjab is highestin the year? or In the year 1997, which state had the lowest percentage of candidates selected over the candidates appeared? etc.

A table chart gives the sales of different types of batteries manufactured by a company over the years and then several questions are asked like What was the approximate percentage increase in the sales of 55AH batteries in 1998 compared to that in 1992? or The total sales of all the seven years is the maximum for which battery? or The percentage of 4AH batteries sold to the total number of batteries sold was maximum in the year? etc.

A table chart shows the results of half yearly and annual examinations of 4 different sections of class IX students and then several questions are asked like If the number of students passing an examination be considered a criteria for comparision of difficulty level of two examinations, which of the following statements is true in this context? or How many students are there in Class IX in the school? or Which section has the maximum pass percentage in at least one of the two examinations? etc.

A table shows the number of new employees added to different categories of employees in a company and also the number of employees from these categories who left the company every year since the foundation of the Company in 1995 and then several questions are asked like What is the difference between the total number of Technicians added to the Company and the total number of Accountants added to the Company during the years 1996 to 2000? or What was the total number of Peons working in the Company in the year 1999? or For which of the following categories the percentage increase in the number of employees working in the Company from 1995 to 2000 was the maximum? etc.

A table gives the percentage distribution of population of five states, P, Q, R, S and T on the basis of poverty line and also on the basis of sex and then several questions are asked like If the male population above poverty line for State R is 1.9 million, then the total population of State R is? or What will be the number of females above the poverty line in the State S if it is known that the population of State S is 7 million? or What will be the male population above poverty line for State P if the female population below poverty line for State P is 2.1 million? etc.

A bar graph showing the sales of books (in thousand number) from six branches of a publishing company during two consecutive years 2000 and 2001 with different branches on x axis and sales on y axis and then several questions are asked like What is the ratio of the total sales of branch B2 for both years to the total sales of branch B4 for both years? or Total sales of branch B6 for both the years is what percent of the total sales of branches B3 for both the years? etc.

A bar graph shows the foreign exchange reserves of a country (in million US $) from 1991-1992 to 1998-1999 with year on the x axis and foreign exchange reserves on the y axis and then several questions are asked like The ratio of the number of years, in which the foreign exchange reserves are above the average reserves, to those in which the reserves are below the average reserves is? or For which year, the percent increase of foreign exchange reserves over the previous year, is the highest? etc.

A bar graph shows the data of the production of paper (in lakh tonnes = One Lakh is equal to One Hundred Thousand (100,000)) by three different companies X, Y and Z over the years with years on the x axis and quantity in lakh tons on the y axis and then several questions are asked like For which of the following years, the percentage rise/fall in production from the previous year is the maximum for Company Y? or What is the ratio of the average production of Company X in the period 1998-2000 to the average production of Company Y in the same period? etc.

Out of the two bar graphs, one shows the amounts (in Lakh Rs. = One Lakh is equal to One Hundred Thousand (100,000)) invested by a Company in purchasing raw materials over the years and the other shows the values (in Lakh Rs. = One Lakh is equal to One Hundred Thousand (100,000)) of finished goods sold by the Company over the years with years on the x axis and amount on the y axis and then several questions are asked like The maximum difference between the amount invested in Raw materials and value of sales of finished goods was during the year? or The value of sales of finished goods in 1999 was approximately what percent of the sum of amount invested in Raw materials in the years 1997, 1998 and 1999? etc.

A bar chart shows the production of fertilizers by a company (in 1000 tonnes) over the years with years on the x axis and production (in 1000 tonnes) on the y axis and then several questions are asked like What was the percentage decline in the production of fertilizers from 1997 to 1998? or The average production of 1996 and 1997 was exactly equal to the average production of which of the following pairs of years? etc.

A bar graph shows the percentage distribution of the total expenditures of a company under various expense heads like infrastructure, transport, advertisement, taxes, R & D, salary and interest on loans during 2003 with the heads on the x axis and percent spent on the y axis and then several questions are asked like The total amount of expenditures of the company is how many times of expenditure on research and development? or What is the ratio of the total expenditure on infrastructure and transport to the total expenditure on taxes and interest on loans? etc.

A cosmetic company provides five different products. The sales of these five products (in lakh number of packs, lakh equals 100 000) during 1995 and 2000 are shown in the bar graph with the five products Lipsticks, Nail Enamels, Talcum Powder, Shampoos and Conditioners on the x axis and sales (in lakh number of packs) on the y axis and then several questions are asked like The sales of lipsticks in 2000 was by what percent more than the sales of nail enamels in 2000? (rounded off to nearest integer) or During the period 1995-2000, the minimum rate of increase in sales is in the case of? etc.

A soft drink company prepares drinks of three different flavours - X, Y and Z. The production of three flavours over a period of six years has been expressed in the bar graph with years on the x axis and the production quantity on the y axis and then several questions are asked like The total production of flovour Z in 1997 and 1998 is what percentage of the total production of flavour X in 1995 and 1996? or What is the difference between the average production of flavour X in 1995, 1996 and 1997 and the average production of flavour Y in 1998, 1999 and 2000? (1 lakhs=100 000) etc.

A bar graph shows the percentage distribution( of the six different models) of the total production of a car manufacturing company into various models over two years with the two years 2000 and 2001 on the x axis and the percentages on the y axis and then several questions are asked like What was the difference in the number of Q type cars produced in 2000 and that produced in 2001? or If the percentage production of P type cars in 2001 was the same as that in 2000, then the number of P type cars produced in 2001 would have been? etc.

A bar graph shows the Income and Expenditures (in million US $) of five companies in the year 2001. The percent profit or loss of a company is given by

% profit/loss = {(Income - Expenditure)/Expenditure} x 100

with income and expenditure of the five companies on the x axis and the amount on the y axis and then several questions are asked like In 2001, what was the approximate percentage of profit/loss of all the five Companies taken together? or For Company R, if the expenditure had increased by 20% in year 2001 from year 2000 and the company had earned profit of 10% in 2000, what was the Company's income in 2000 (in million US $)? etc.

A bar chart represents the number of students who passed the CAT exam or the XAT exam or the CET exam or None of these exams. (Assume that there are no students who passed more than one exam.) with the number of students who qualified CAT/XAT/CET Exams in 2000, 2001 and 2002 on the x axis and the x axis and the numbers on the y axis and then several questions are asked like Which year showed the best result in MBA entrance exams (in terms of percentage of students who cleared) ? or What was the percentage of students who succeeded in at least one of three exams in 2000 ? etc.

The following pie-chart shows the percentage distribution of the expenditure incurred in publishing a book like Binding Cost and Promotion Cost Paper Cost and Royalty Transportation cost and then several questions are asked like If for a certain quantity of books, the publisher has to pay Rs. 30,600 as printing cost, then what will be amount of royalty to be paid for these books? or The price of the book is marked 20% above the C.P. If the marked price of the book is Rs. 180, then what is the cost of the paper used in a single copy of the book? etc.

A pie chart exhibit the distribution of the overseas tourist traffic from India. The two charts shows the tourist distribution by country and the age profiles of the tourists respectively. One chart shows the countries the Indian tourists go to and the other chart shows the age group of the tourists and then several questions are asked like The ratio of the number of Indian tourists that went to USA to the number of Indian tourists who were below 30 years of age is ? or What percentage of Indian tourists went to either USA or UK ? etc.

A pie chart gives the information about the distribution of weight in the human body according to different kinds of components like bones, muscles, skin and hormones, enzymes and other proteins and then several questions are asked like What percentage of proteins of the human body is equivalent to the weight of its skin ? or What is the ratio of the distribution of proteins in the muscles to that of the distribution of proteins in the bones ? etc.

A pie chart shows the distribution of New York market share by value of different computer companies like IBM, HP, Apple, Texas and others in 2005 and then several questions are asked like the average unit sale price of an IBM PC or which company has realised the lowest average unit sales price for a PC ?

The following pie-chart shows the sources of funds to be collected by the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) for its Phase II projects and then several questions are asked like If NHAI could receive a total of 9695 Yen as External Assistance, by what percent (approximately) should it increase the Market Borrowing to arrange for the shortage of funds? or If the toll is to be collected through an outsourced agency by allowing a maximum 10% commission, how much amount should be permitted to be collected by the outsourced agency, so that the project is supported with 4910 Yen? etc.

Sources of funds to be arranged by NHAI for Phase II projects are SPVS, External Assistance, Annuity and Market Borrowing and several questions are asked like The approximate ratio of the funds to be arranged through Toll and that through Market Borrowing or If NHAI could receive a total of 9695 Yen as External Assistance, by what percent (approximately) should it increase the Market Borrowing to arrange for the shortage of funds? etc.

A pie-chart showing the distribution of students of graduate and post-graduate levels in seven different institutes in a town. and then several questions are asked like What is the total number of graduate and post-graduate level students is a particular institute?, What is the ratio between the number of students studying at post-graduate and graduate levels respectively from a particular institute? or How many students of two institutes are studying at graduate level? etc.

A pie shows the different village with % population below poverty line and then several questions are asked like If the population of village R in 1997 is 32000, then what will be the population of village Y below poverty line in that year? or The ratio of population of village T below poverty line to that of village Z below poverty line in 1997 is etc.

A pie chart showing the example of the amount of subscriptions generated for India bonds from different categories of investment like FII, Offshore funds, National banks, Corporate houses, NRIs and others and then different questions are asked like In the corporate sector, approximately how many degrees should be there in the central angle ? or What percentage of the total investment is coming from FII's and NRI's ? or If the total investment flows from FII's were to be doubled in the next year and the investment flows from all other sources had remained constant at their existing levels for this year, then what would be the proportion of FII investment in the total investment into India Bonds next year (in US $ millions) ? etc.

A pie chart shows spendings of a country on various sports like cricket, hockey, football, golf, tennis, basket ball and others in a particular year and then various questions are asked like What percent of total spending is spent on Tennis? or How much percent more is spent on Hockey than that on Golf? or If the total amount spent on sports during the year be Rs. 1,80,00,000 , the amount spent on Basketball exceeds on Tennis by: etc.

A pie chart showing the distribution of candidates who were enrolled for MBA entrance exam and the candidates (out of those enrolled) who passed the exam in different institutes and then several questions are asked like What percentage of candidates passed the Exam from institute T out of the total number of candidates enrolled from the same institute? or Which institute has the highest percentage of candidates passed to the candidates enrolled? or The number of candidates passed from institutes S and P together exceeds the number of candidates enrolled from institutes T and R together by: etc.

A pie chart shows the data of different states regarding population in a particular year and a table shows the sex and literacy wise population ratio of those states and then different questions are asked like What will be the percentage of total number of males in U.P., M.P. and Goa together to the total population of all the given states? or What was the total number of illiterate people in A.P. and M.P. in 1998? or If in the year 1998, there was an increase of 10% in the population of U.P. and 12% in the population of M.P. compared to the previous year, then what was the ratio of populations of U.P. and M.P. in 1997? etc.

A line chart showing Exports from Three Companies Over the Years with years on X axis and export value on y axis and then several questions are asked like For which of the following pairs of years the total exports from the three Companies together are equal? or Average annual exports during the given period for Company Y is approximately what percent of the average annual exports for Company Z? or In which year was the difference between the exports from Companies X and Y the minimum? etc.

A line graph gives the ratio of the amounts of imports by a company to the amount of exports from that company over the period from 1995 to 2001. with years on x axis and the ratio of the amounts of imports on y axis and then several questions are asked like If the imports in 1998 was Rs. 250 and the total exports in the years 1998 and 1999 together was Rs. 500 then the imports in 1999 was ? or The imports were minimum proportionate to the exports of the company in the year ? or What was the percentage increase in imports from 1997 to 1998 ? etc.

A line chart showing the number of vehicles manufactured by two companies over the years with years on x axis and number of vehicles on y axis and then several questions are asked like What is the difference between the number of vehicles manufactured by Company Y in 2000 and 2001 ? or What is the difference between the total productions of the two Companies in the given years ? or In which of the following years, the difference between the productions of Companies X and Y was the maximum among the given years ? etc.

A line graph showing the percent profit earned by two companies X and Y over the given years with years on x axis and percent profit on y axis and then several questions are asked like The incomes of two Companies X and Y in 2000 were in the ratio of 3:4 respectively. What was the respective ratio of their expenditures in 2000 or If the incomes of two Comapanies were equal in 1999, then what was the ratio of expenditure of Company X to that of Company Y in 1999 ? or If the expenditure of Company Y in 1997 was 220 what was its income in 1997 ? etc.

A line graph showing the percentage of the number of candidates who qualified an examination out of the total number of candidates who appeared for the examination over a period of seven years from 1994 to 2000 with years on the x axis and percentage on the y axis and then several questions are asked like The difference between the percentage of candidates qualified to appeared was maximum in which of the following pairs of years? or In which pair of years was the number of candidates qualified, the same? or If the number of candidates qualified in 1998 was 21200, what was the number of candidates appeared in 1998? etc.

A line graph showing the annual percent profit earned by a company during the period 1995-2000 with years on x axis and percent profit on y axis and then several questions are asked like If the expenditures in 1996 and 1999 are equal, then the approximate ratio of the income in 1996 and 1999 respectively is? or If the income in 1998 was 264 what was the expenditure in 1998? or In which year is the expenditure minimum? etc.

A line graph showing the Ratio of Exports to Imports (in terms of money in million Singapore Dollar) of Two Companies Over the Years with years on x axis and ratio of Exports to Imports on y axis and then several questions are asked like In how many of the given years were the exports more than the imports for Company A? or If the imports of Company A in 1997 were increased by 40 percent, what would be the ratio of exports to the increased imports? or If the exports of Company A in 1998 were 237 million Singapore Dollar, what was the amount of imports in that year? etc.

Two different finance companies declare fixed annual rate of interest on the amounts invested with them by investors. The rate of interest offered by these companies may differ from year to year depending on the variation in the economy of the country and the banks rate of interest. The annual rate of interest offered by the two Companies P and Q over the years are shown by the line graph with years on x axis and rate of interest on y axis and then several questions are asked like A sum of 475000 was invested in Company Q in 1999 for one year. How much more interest would have been earned if the sum was invested in Company P? or If two different amounts in the ratio 8:9 are invested in Companies P and Q respectively in 2002, then the amounts received after one year as interests from Companies P and Q are respectively in the ratio? or In 2000, a part of 3000000 was invested in Company P and the rest was invested in Company Q for one year. The total interest received was 243000 What was the amount invested in Company P? etc.

A line graph giving the the number of students who joined and left the school in the beginning of year for six years, from 1996 to 2001 with years on x axis and number of students on y axis and then several questions are asked like he number of students studying in the school during 1999 was? or For which year, the percentage rise/fall in the number of students who left the school compared to the previous year is maximum? or The strength of school incresed/decreased from 1997 to 1998 by approximately what percent? etc.

In a school the periodical examination are held every second month. In a session during April 2001 - March 2002, a student of Class IX appeared for each of the periodical exams. The aggregate marks obtained by him in each perodical exam are represented in the line-graph with periodical exam months on x axis and marks on y axis and then several questions are asked like In which periodical exams did the student obtain the highest percentage increase in marks over the previous periodical exams ? or The total number of marks obtained in Feb. 02 is what percent of the total marks obtained in April 01 ? or What is the percentage of marks obtained by the student in the periodical exams of August, 01 and Oct, 01 taken together ? etc.

In the following 155 pages you will find 538 questions on various types of data interpretation questions and solution with detailed explanation.

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1. Passage Reading 2. Verbal Logic 3. Non Verbal Logic 4. Numerical Logic

5. Data Interpretation
6. Reasoning
7. Analytical Ability
8. Basic Numeracy

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