(a) Robert has a blond dog named Rupert
(b) All dogs are tall
(c) Rupert is a short dog that barks
(d) Rupert is a good dog and does not bark
357. Review the facts below.
Bob has a red couch.
Cupboards are yellow.
There is no red furniture that is not also lightweight.
Yellow furniture is big, unless it has shelves.
Based on the information above, which of the following MUST be true?explanation
(a) Bob's couch weighs less than cupboards do
(b) All cupboards are big
(c) Bobs couch is small, as are cupboards
(d) Bob has a light couch
358. A report on the use of monosodium glutamate in food concluded, "Most Americans who consume monosodium glutamate regularly are not being harmed." Critics of the report insist the conclusion be changed to, "Most Americans who consume monosodium glutamate do not show visible symptoms of harm by the substance, such as abnormal rashes or slower rates of metabolism." Which of the following, if true, provides the best logical justification for the critics' insistence that the report's conclusion be changed?
(a) Some Americans who consume monosodium glutamate regularly are being harmed by the substance
(b) Monosodium glutamate could be causing long term damage for which symptoms have not yet become visible
(c) The report does not compare harm caused to Americans who consume monosodium glutamate with harm caused to people in other countries
(d) Monosodium glutamate has been added to a growing number of commonly consumed foods during the past fifteen years
359. Until recently, most automobile manufacturers minimized the weight of their cars to maximize mileage. The safest chassis were heavy, so few manufacturers equipped their cars with the safest chassis. This year the chassis metal that has sold best to automobile manufacturers has been the safest one-a clear indication that manufacturers are assigning a higher priority to safety than to mileage. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?
(a) Last year's best-selling chassis metal was not the safest chassis metal on the market
(b) No automobile manufacturer has announced that it would be making safe chassis a higher priority this year
(c) The price of gas was higher this year than it had been in most of the years when the safest chassis sold poorly
(d) Because of technological innovations, the safest chassis on the market this year weighed less than some other chassis on the market
360. The CEO of Black's International has proposed replacing their Marmacil semiconductor manufacturing equipment with Fasttech equipment since it costs 30 percent less to train new staff on the Fasttech equipment. Those opposed to the change have pointed out the savings in training cost does not justify the change. Instead, they suggested that the company hire only people who already know how to use the Marmacil equipment. Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the objection to the replacement of Marmacil semiconductor manufacturing equipment with Fasttechs?
(a) Currently all employees in the company are required to attend workshops on how to use Marmacil semiconductor manufacturing equipment in new applications
(b) Once employees learn how to use semiconductor manufacturing equipment, they tend to change employers more readily than before
(c) Experienced users of Marmacil equipment command much higher salaries than do prospective employees who have no experience in the use of such equipment
(d) The average productivity of employees in the general manager's company is below the average productivity of the employees of its competitors
361. A pharmaceutical company developed a new diuretic reported to cause fewer side effects than their old diuretic, which was still being manufactured. During the first year that both were sold, the earlier medication far outsold the new one; the manufacturer thus concluded that reducing side effects was not the customers' primary consideration. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the manufacturer's conclusion?explanation
(a) Both hospitals and patients buy diuretics from this pharmaceutical company
(b) Many customers consider older medications a better safety risk than new ones, since more is usually known about the safety of the earlier drugs
(c) Many customers of this pharmaceutical company also bought medications from companies who did not produce new diuretics reported to cause fewer side effects
(d) The newer diuretic can be used by all the patients who could use the earlier diuretic
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