(a) Many personal care products elicit an allergic skin response only after several days, making it very difficult to observe links between specific products patients use and the perioral dermatitis they develop
(b) Skin allergies affect many people who never develop the symptom of perioral dermatitis
(c) Many patients report that the personal care products that cause them perioral dermatitis are among the products they most enjoy using
(d) Very few patients have allergic skin reactions as children and then live rash-free adult lives once they have eliminated products to which they have been demonstrated to be allergic
296. In prenatal testing for spina bifida, a life threatening disease, a false positive result indicates that a fetus has spina bifida when, in fact, it does not; a false negative result indicates that a fetus does not have spina bifida when, in fact, it does. To detect spina bifida most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results.
Which of the following, if true, gives the most support to the recommendation above?
(a) All laboratory tests to detect spina bifida have the same proportion of false negative results
(b) The laboratory test that has the lowest proportions of false positive results causes the same minor side effects as do the other laboratory tests used to detect spina bifida
(c) In treating spina bifida patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of delay can result in loss of life
(d) The proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect spina bifida
297. Health club membership has increased dramatically over the last five years. In order to take advantage of this increase, Fitness Express plans to open more of the same types of classes available during the week, while continuing its already very extensive advertising in newspapers and on the radio. Which of the following, if true, provides most support for the view that Fitness Express cannot increase membership to its gyms by adopting the plan outlined above?
(a) Although it fills all of the classes it opens, Fitness Express's share of all health club memberships has declined over the last five years.
(b) Fitness Express' number of classes offered to their clients has declined slightly over the last year
(c) Advertising has made the name of Fitness Express widely known, but few customers know that Fitness Express health clubs also off acupuncture and shiatsu treatments
(d) Despite a slight decline in membership price, sales of Fitness Express memberships have fallen in the last five years
298. In a psychological experiment conducted at Southbay University, groups of men with various levels of education read stories in which people caused harm, some of them doing so intentionally, and some accidentally. When asked about appropriate penalization for those who had caused harm, the less educated men, unlike the educated ones, assigned punishments that did not vary according to whether the harm was done intentionally or accidentally. Uneducated men, then, do not regard people's intentions as relevant to penalization. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion above?
(a) In these stories, the severity of the harm produced was clearly stated
(b) In interpreting these stories, the listeners had to rely on a high levels of emotional intelligence in order to tell whether harm was produced intentionally or accidentally
(c) In interpreting these stories, the listeners had to rely on a high levels of emotional intelligence in order to tell whether harm was produced intentionally or accidentally
(d) The more educated men assigned penalization in a way that closely resembled the way women had assign penalization in a similar experiment
299. More sports journals are sold in Hornby than in Milston. Therefore, the residents of Hornby are better informed about major sporting events than are the residents of Milston. Each of the following, if true, weakens the conclusion above EXCEPT:
(a) Hornby has a larger population than Milston
(b) Most residents of Milston work in Hornby and buy their reading material there
(c) The average newsstand price of journals sold in Hornby is lower than the average price of journals sold in Milston
(d) A monthly journal restricted to the coverage of local events is published in Hornby
300. Which of the following, best completes the passage below?
At last month's symposium on the increasing air pollution affecting the Beaumont forest, most participating members favored uniform controls on the quality of exhaust fumes, whether or not specific environmental damage could be attributed to a particular source of fumes. What must, of course, be shown, in order to avoid excessively restrictive controls, is that __________.
(a) any uniform controls that are adopted are likely to be implemented without delay
(b) any substance to be made subject to controls can actually cause environmental damage
(c) environmental damage already inflicted on the Beaumont forest is reversible
(d) the members favoring uniform controls are those representing bodies that generate the largest quantities of exhaust fumes
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