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Passage Reading and English Comprehension

It is bad to have food stuck between your teeth for long periods of time. This is because food attracts germs, germs produce acid, and acid hurts your teeth and gums. Flossing helps to remove the food that gets stuck between your teeth. This explains why flossing helps to keep your mouth healthy, but some doctors say that flossing can be also good for your heart.

It may seem strange that something you do for your teeth can have any effect on your heart. Doctors have come up with a few ideas about how flossing works to keep your heart healthy. One idea is that the germs that hurt your teeth can leave the mouth and travel into your blood. Germs that get into the blood can then attack your heart. Another idea is based on the fact that when there are too many germs in your mouth, the body tries to fight against these germs. For some reason, the way the body fights these mouth germs may end up weakening the heart over time.

Not every doctor agrees about these ideas. Some doctors think that the link between good flossing habits and good heart health is only a coincidence. A coincidence is the occurrence of two or more events at one time apparently by mere chance. The incidence of these events is completely random, as they do not admit of any reliable cause and effect relationship between them. For example, every time I wash my car, it rains. This does not mean that when I wash my car, I somehow change the weather. This is only a coincidence. Likewise, some doctors think that people who have bad flossing habits just happen to also have heart problems, and people who have good flossing habits just happen to have healthy hearts.

The theory that flossing your teeth helps to keep your heart healthy might not be true. But every doctor agrees that flossing is a great way to keep your teeth healthy. So even if flossing does not help your heart, it is sure to help your teeth. This is enough of a reason for everyone to floss their teeth every day

1655. Which of the following would be the best title for this passage?

(a) Why Doctors Disagree about Flossing
(b) How to Keep Your Teeth Healthy
(c) Flossing Your Way to a Healthy Heart
(d) Flossing by Coincidence

1656. Flossing effectively helps to keep your mouth healthy by preventing

(a) germs from producing acid
(b) food from entering your body
(c) germs from entering into your blood
(d) acid from contacting your teeth and gums

1657. In paragraph 2, the author introduces ideas about how flossing works to keep your heart healthy. Exactly how many of these ideas does the author put forth in this paragraph?

(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) 4

1658. Based on information in paragraph 2, it can be understood that germs in the mouth may harm your heart by

I. getting into the blood that flows to the heart
II. forcing the body to fight against too many of them
III. causing food to get stuck in the arteries

(a) I only
(b) I and II only
(c) II and III only
(d) I, II, and III

1659. In paragraph 2, the author explains how having too many germs in your mouth can "end up weakening the heart." Using the passage as a guide, it can be understood that with respect to the actual way in which this occurs, doctors are

(a) reluctant to hypothesize
(b) confident in their estimations
(c) extremely knowledgeable
(d) uncertain but speculative

1660. In paragraph 3 the author writes, "Not every doctor agrees about these ideas." The author's purpose in writing this sentence is to

(a) provide an example
(b) introduce a new topic
(c) change a previous statement
(d) clarify an earlier assertion

1661. Using information in paragraph 3 as a guide, which of the following is the best example of a coincidence?

(a) Jim wakes up with a sore throat. He eats a piece of bacon for breakfast. By noon, he feels much better. Jim decides that the bacon has cured his sore throat
(b) Laura remembers to brush her teeth every day, but she only remembers to floss once a week. She writes a note to herself, reminding herself to floss and sticks it to her bathroom mirror
(c) Mario is not very good at baseball. He practices playing every day. After a several months of practice, he is a much better baseball player
(d) Jai has a bad heart. Her doctor tells her to eat more vegetables and less junk food. After nearly a year of doing this, the doctor tells Jai that her heart is doing much better

1662. Based on its use in the final paragraph, it can be inferred that theory belongs to which of the following word groups?

(a) query, question, interrogation
(b) assertion, declaration, affirmation
(c) hypothesis, supposition, belief
(d) idea, thought, notion

1663. Which of the following best states the main idea of the final paragraph?

(a) Because doctors do not agree that flossing will help your heart, it is useless to floss
(b) It is a fact that flossing can help your heart as well as your teeth
(c) Even if flossing is only good for your teeth, you should still do it every day
(d) There is no good reason to believe that flossing will help your heart, but it is still a good idea to do it every day

TOTAL

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1. Passage Reading 2. Verbal Logic 3. Non Verbal Logic 4. Numerical Logic

5. Data Interpretation 6. Reasoning 7. Analytical Ability 8. Basic Numeracy

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