aptitudetests4me.com
Aptitude Tests 4 Me


bulletPassage Reading

bulletVerbal Logic

bulletNon Verbal Logic

bulletNumerical Logic

bulletData Interpretation

bulletReasoning

bulletAnalytical Ability

bulletBasic Numeracy

bulletAbout Us

bulletContact

bulletPrivacy Policy

bulletGoogle Privacy & Terms

bulletSite Map Page

Passage Reading and English Comprehension

Although much has been written about the theological conflicts with Darwinian theory, little is known of the powerful scientific objections that modified Darwin’s beliefs.

During Darwin’s lifetime, the accepted theory of heredity was not Mendel’s theory of particulate inheritance, which, though published, was unrecognized, but the theory of blending inheritance, which holds that forms intermediate between those of the parents result from mating. Jenkin pointed out that if a rare and favorable mutation occurred, it would soon be blended out by repeated crossings from the wild-type form. Disputing Darwin’s conception of evolution as proceeding through the natural selection of those with slightly better characteristics that arose randomly, Jenkin concluded that natural selection could not account for the tremendous diversity of life, hypothesizing that large numbers of organisms mutated simultaneously in the same direction—a controlled orthogenetic process resembling a series of “special creations.”

Since “special creationism” was an ideological target of his, Darwin found himself in a quandary. Although he did not abandon his theory, he admitted that natural selection played a much smaller part in evolution than he had previously claimed. He also embraced the Lamarckian concept that acquired traits in parents are transmitted to their offspring, thus providing a mechanism by which an entire population could change in the same direction at once.

Another potent objection came from the physicists led by Lord Kelvin, who contested the assumption of previous geologists and biologists that life had existed for billions of years, if not infinitely. How, they asked, could evolution proceed by slow steps in millions of years, and how could advanced forms recently evolved show such great differences? The Kelvinists, basing their conclusion on the assumption that the sun was an incandescent liquid mass rapidly radiating heat, calculated that the age of the earth was between 20 and 40 million years.

Admitting that their calculations were correct and their premises rational, Darwin was forced to adjust this theory. He proposed that change had occurred much more rapidly in the past than in the present, where species seemed static, and that more advanced forms varied more rapidly than lower forms. This provided further reason to advocate Lamarck’s theory of inheritance, because that could account for the rapid change.

Interestingly, both these retreats of Darwin were later shown to be faulty. The discovery that the sun runs on a nearly infinite amount of atomic fuel totally invalidated Kelvin’s argument, Mendel was “rediscovered” in the twentieth century, when it was pointed out that the particulate nature of inheritance meant that favorable mutation not only could persist, but could rapidly become prevalent.

106. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(a) outline the process by which Darwin formulated and modified his theory of natural selection
(b) propose a new interpretation of Darwin’s theory of evolution
(c) discuss some of the scientific controversy that Darwin sparked and describe his response to it
(d) defend Darwinian theory against the objections raised by Darwin’s contemporaries in the scientific community

107. It can be inferred from the passage that the theory of blending inheritance would predict that the offspring of

(a) two strains of snapdragons, one with abnormal, radically symmetrical flowers and the other with normal, bilaterally symmetrical flowers, would always have normal, bilaterally symmetrical flowers
(b) a white horse and a black horse would always be gray
(c) a man with type A blood and a woman with type B blood would always have type A, type B, or type AB blood
(d) a fly with large eyes and a fly with small eyes would always have one large eye and one small eye

108. It can be inferred from the passage that “wild-type” means

(a) nonmutant
(b) rare
(c) abnormal
(d) random

109. Which of the following, if it could be demonstrated, would tend to support the Lamarckian concept that Darwin embraced?

(a) ) Human beings evolved from now-extinct animals much like chimpanzees as a result of an erratic accumulation of changes in the gene pool through thousands of generations.
(b) Some parental traits disappear in offspring and reappear in the following generation.
(c) All species of organisms were immutably created in their present forms.
(d) Rats who have had their tails cut off produce tailless offspring.

110. The author’s attitude toward Jenkin and Kelvin can best be described as

(a) respectful
(b) contemptuous
(c) ambivalent
(d) denunciatory

111. According to the passage, Darwin modified his beliefs in order to

(a) bring them into line with the theory of particulate inheritance
(b) disprove Lord Kelvin’s view on the age of the earth
(c) dissociate himself from those who believed in “special creationism”
(d) meet the objections of Jenkin and Lamarck

112. The author sets off the word “rediscovered” in quotation marks in order to

(a) emphasize that major scientific theories are rarely acknowledged or accepted when they are first promulgated
(b) indicate that the term is somewhat ironic, since Mendel’s work was virtually ignored when it was published
(c) rebuke the scientific community for deliberately suppressing Mendel’s work until long after his death
(d) underscore the similarity between Mendel’s theory of particulate inheritance and the theory of blending inheritance that was accepted during his lifetime

113. It can be inferred from the passage that if Mendel’s work had been recognized and accepted during Darwin’s lifetime, it would have had which of the following effect?

I.It would have refuted Jenkin’s objections to Darwin’s theories.
II. It would have supported Darwin’s theory that evolution proceeds by very slow steps over millions of years.
III. It would have clarified and supported Darwin’s theory of natural selection.

(a) I only
(b) III only
(c) I and III only
(d) II and III only

114. All of the following can be reasonably inferred from the passage EXCEPT:

(a) The idea that evolution occurs by means of natural selection was not widely accepted until the twentieth century.
(b) Darwin was the only scientist of his day who believed in natural selection.
(c) Darwin’s theories were originally predicated on the assumption that the earth is more than 40 million years old.
(d) Many of Darwin’s ideas about heredity were later shown to be incorrect.

TOTAL

Detailed Solution




Download Free EBooks for GMAT, GRE, ACT, SAT, LSAT, MCAT etc.

1. Passage Reading 2. Verbal Logic 3. Non Verbal Logic 4. Numerical Logic

5. Data Interpretation 6. Reasoning 7. Analytical Ability 8. Basic Numeracy

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120
121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140
141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160
161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180
181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200
201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220
221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240
241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260
261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280
281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300
301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320
321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340
341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360
361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380
381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400
401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419

Tell Your Freind

Your Name:
Your Friends Email Address:
Your Friends Name: