aptitudetests4me.com
Aptitude Tests 4 Me


bulletPassage Reading

bulletVerbal Logic

bulletNon Verbal Logic

bulletNumerical Logic

bulletData Interpretation

bulletReasoning

bulletAnalytical Ability

bulletBasic Numeracy

bulletAbout Us

bulletContact

bulletPrivacy Policy

bulletGoogle Privacy & Terms

bulletSite Map Page

Passage Reading and English Comprehension

The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries. How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures wereóreptiles or birdsóare among the questions scientists have puzzled over.

Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles. Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian. The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds. In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing-like membrane. The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws. In birds the second finger is the principal strut of the wing, which consists primarily of feathers. If the pterosaurs walked on all fours, the three short fingers may have been employed for grasping. When a pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animalís body.

The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions. This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a savings in weight. In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.

Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats. T. H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm-blooded because flying implies a high rate of metabolism, which in turn implies a high internal temperature. Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight. The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidence that his reasoning was correct.

Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became airborne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves. Each hypothesis has its difficulties. The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaursí hind feet resembled a batís and could serve as hooks by which the animal could hang in preparation for flight. The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings. The third calls for high waves to channel updrafts. The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.

70. It can be inferred from the passage that scientists now generally agree that the

(a) enormous wingspan of the pterosaurs enabled them to fly great distances
(b) structure of the skeleton of the pterosaurs suggests a close evolutionary relationship to bats
(c) fossil remains of the pterosaurs reveal how they solved the problem of powered flight
(d) pterosaurs were reptiles

71. The author views the idea that the pterosaurs became airborne by rising into light winds created by waves as

(a) revolutionary
(b) unlikely
(c) unassailable
(d) probable

72. According to the passage, the skeleton of a pterosaur can be distinguished from that of a bird by the

(a) size of its wingspan
(b) presence of hollow spaces in its bones
(c) anatomic origin of its wing strut
(d) presence of hooklike projections on its hind feet

73. The ideas attributed to T. H. Huxley in the passage suggest that he would most likely agree with which of the following statements?

(a) An animalís brain size has little bearing on its ability to master complex behaviors.
(b) An animalís appearance is often influenced by environmental requirements and physical capabilities.
(c) Animals within a given family group are unlikely to change their appearance dramatically over a period of time.
(d) The origin of flight in vertebrates was an accidental development rather than the outcome of specialization or adaptation.

74. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?

(a) They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.
(b) They hung upside down from branches as bats do before flight.
(c) They flew in order to capture prey.
(d) They were an early stage in the evolution of the birds.

75. Which of the following best describes the organization of the last paragraph of the passage?

(a) New evidence is introduced to support a traditional point of view.
(b) Three explanations for a phenomenon are presented, and each is disputed by means of specific information.
(c) Three hypotheses are outlined, and evidence supporting each is given.
(d) Recent discoveries are described, and their implications for future study are projected.

76. It can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs

(a) lived near large bodies of water
(b) had sharp teeth for tearing food
(c) were attacked and eaten by larger reptiles
(d) had longer tails than many birds

TOTAL

Detailed Solution




Download Free EBooks for GMAT, GRE, ACT, SAT, LSAT, MCAT etc.

1. Passage Reading 2. Verbal Logic 3. Non Verbal Logic 4. Numerical Logic

5. Data Interpretation 6. Reasoning 7. Analytical Ability 8. Basic Numeracy

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120
121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140
141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160
161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180
181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200
201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220
221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240
241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260
261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280
281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300
301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320
321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340
341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360
361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380
381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400
401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419

Tell Your Freind

Your Name:
Your Friends Email Address:
Your Friends Name: