Passage Reading and English Comprehension
(a) demonstrating why the methods of early seismologists were flawed
(b) arguing that deep events are poorly understood and deserve further study
(c) defending a revolutionary theory about the causes of earthquakes and methods of predicting them
(d) discussing evidence for the existence of deep events and the conditions that allow them to occur
57. The author uses the comparisons to porcelain and putty in order to
(a) explain why the Earth’s mantle is under great pressure
(b) distinguish the earthquake’s epicenter from its focus
(c) demonstrate the conditions under which a Wadati-Benioff zone forms
(d) illustrate why the crust will fracture but the mantle will not
58. It can be inferred from the passage that if the S waves from an earthquake arrive at a given location long after the P waves, which of the following must be true?
(a) The earthquake was a deep event.
(b) The earthquake was a shallow event.
(c) The earthquake focus was distant.
(d) The earthquake focus was nearby.
59. The method used by Wadati to determine the depths of earthquakes is most like which of the following?
(a) Determining the depth of a well by dropping stones into the well and timing how long they take to reach the bottom
(b) Determining the height of a mountain by measuring the shadow it casts at different times of the day
(c) Determining the distance from a thunderstorm by timing the interval between the flash of a lightning bolt and the thunder it produces
(d) Determining the distance between two points by counting the number of paces it takes to cover the distance and measuring a single pace
60. The passage supports which of the following statements about the relationship between the epicenter and the focus of an earthquake?
(a) P waves originate at the focus and S waves originate at the epicenter.
(b) In deep events the epicenter and the focus are reversed.
(c) In shallow events the epicenter and the focus coincide.
(d) In both deep and shallow events the focus lies beneath the epicenter.
61. The passage suggests that which of the following must take place in order for any earthquake to occur?
I. Stress must build up.
II. Cool rock must descend into the mantle.
III. A fracture must occur.
(a) I only
(b) II only
(c) III only
(d) I and III only
62. Information presented in the passage suggests that, compared with seismic activity at the epicenter of a shallow event, seismic activity at the epicenter of a deep event is characterized by
(a) shorter P-S intervals and higher peak intensity
(b) shorter P-S intervals and lower peak intensity
(c) longer P-S intervals and similar peak intensity
(d) longer P-S intervals and lower peak intensity
63. The passage suggests which of the following about the views held by researchers before 1927?
(a) Some researchers did not believe that deep events could actually occur.
(b) Many researchers rejected the use of P-S intervals for determining the depths of earthquakes.
(c) Some researchers doubted that the mantle was too ductile to store the stress needed for an earthquake.
(d) Most researchers expected P waves to be slower than S waves.
64. The author’s explanation of how deep events occur would be most weakened if which of the following were discovered to be true?
(a) Deep events are far less common than shallow events.
(b) Deep events occur in places other than where crustal plates meet.
(c) Mantle rock is more ductile at a depth of several hundred kilometers than it is at 50 kilometers.
(d) The speeds of both P and S waves are slightly greater than previously thought.
Download Free EBooks for GMAT, GRE, ACT, SAT, LSAT, MCAT etc.
Tell Your Freind