Passage Reading and English Comprehension
(a) What causes labor market pathologies that result in suffering
(b) How social statistics give an unclear picture of the degree of hardship caused by low wages and insufficient employment opportunities
(c) Which of the currently used statistical procedures are the best for estimating the incidence of hardship that is due to unemployment
(d) Where the areas of agreement are among poverty, employment, and earnings figures
78. The author uses “labor market problems” in lines 1-2 to refer to which of the following?
(a) The overall causes of poverty
(b) Deficiencies in the training of the work force
(c) Trade relationships among producers of goods
(d) Shortages of jobs providing adequate income
79. The author contrasts the 1930’s with the present in order to show that
(a) more people were unemployed in the 1930’s
(b) unemployment now has less severe effects
(c) social programs are more needed now
(d) there now is a greater proportion of elderly and handicapped people among those in poverty
80. Which of the following proposals best responds to the issues raised by the author?
(a) Innovative programs using multiple approaches should be set up to reduce the level of unemployment.
(b) A compromise should be found between the positions of those who view joblessness as an evil greater than economic control and those who hold the opposite view.
(c) New statistical indices should be developed to measure the degree to which unemployment and inadequately paid employment cause suffering.
(d) Consideration should be given to the ways in which statistics can act as partial causes of the phenomena that they purport to measure.
81. The author’s purpose in citing those who are repeatedly unemployed during a twelve-month period is most probably to show that
(a) there are several factors that cause the payment of low wages to some members of the labor force
(b) unemployment statistics can underestimate the hardship resulting from joblessness
(c) recurrent inadequacies in the labor market can exist and can cause hardships for individual workers
(d) a majority of those who are jobless at any one time to not suffer severe hardship
82. The author states that the mitigating effect of social programs involving income transfers on the income level of low-income people is often not felt by
(a) the employed poor
(b) dependent children in single-earner families
(c) workers who become disabled
(d) retired workers
83. According to the passage, one factor that causes unemployment and earnings figures to overpredict the amount of economic hardship is the
(a) recurrence of periods of unemployment for a group of low-wage workers
(b) possibility that earnings may be received from more than one job per worker
(c) prevalence, among low-wage workers and the unemployed, of members of families in which others are employed
(d) fact that unemployment counts do not include those who work for low wages and remain poor
84. The conclusion stated about the number of people who suffer as a result of forced idleness depends primarily on the point that
(a) in times of high unemployment, there are some people who do not remain unemployed for long
(b) the capacity for self-support depends on receiving moderate-to-high wages
(c) those in forced idleness include, besides the unemployed, both underemployed part-time workers and those not actively seeking work
(d) at different times during the year, different people are unemployed
85. Which of the following, if true, is the best criticism of the author’s argument concerning why poverty statistics cannot properly be used to show the effects of problems in the labor market?
(a) A short-term increase in the number of those in poverty can indicate a shortage of jobs because the basic number of those unable to accept employment remains approximately constant.
(b) For those who are in poverty as a result of joblessness, there are social programs available that provide a minimum standard of living.
(c) Poverty statistics do not consistently agree with earnings statistics, when each is taken as a measure of hardship resulting from unemployment.
(d) The elderly and handicapped categories include many who previously were employed in the labor market.
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