aptitudetests4me.com
Aptitude Tests 4 Me


bulletPassage Reading

bulletVerbal Logic

bulletNon Verbal Logic

bulletNumerical Logic

bulletData Interpretation

bulletReasoning

bulletAnalytical Ability

bulletBasic Numeracy

bulletAbout Us

bulletContact

bulletPrivacy Policy

bulletGoogle Privacy & Terms

bulletSite Map Page

Passage Reading and English Comprehension

The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision. Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed “intuition” to manage a network of interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the process of thinking.

Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness.

Isenberg’s recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers’ intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an “Aha!” experience. Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis.

Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution. Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns. One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that “thinking” is inseparable from acting. Since managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert.

Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution.

774. According to the passage, senior managers use intuition in all of the following ways EXCEPT to

(a) speed up of the creation of a solution to a problem
(b) identify a problem
(c) bring together disparate facts
(d) stipulate clear goals

775. The passage suggests which of the following about the “writers on management”

(a) They have criticized managers for not following the classical rational model of decision analysis
(b) They have not based their analyses on a sufficiently large sample of actual managers
(c) They have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say rather than on what managers do
(d) They have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making business decisions

776. Which of the following best exemplifies “an ‘Aha!’ experience” as it is presented in the passage?

(a) A manager risks taking an action whose outcome is unpredictable to discover whether the action changes the problem at hand
(b) A manager performs well-learned and familiar behavior patterns in creative and uncharacteristic ways to solve a problem
(c) A manager suddenly connects seemingly unrelated facts and experiences to create a pattern relevant to the problem at hand
(d) A manager rapidly identifies the methodology used to compile data yielded by systematic analysis.

777. According to the passage, the classical model of decision analysis includes all of the following EXCEPT

(a) evaluation of a problem
(b) creation of possible solutions to a problem
(c) establishment of clear goals to be reached by the decision
(d) action undertaken in order to discover more information about a problem

778. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?

(a) Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not
(b) Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not
(c) Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not
(d) Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not

779. It can be inferred from the passage that “thinking/acting cycles” in managerial practice would be likely to result in which of the following?

I. A manager analyzes a network of problems and then acts on the basis of that analysis
II. A manager gathers data by acting and observing the effects of action
III. A manager takes action without being able to articulate reasons for that particular action

(a) I only
(b) II only
(c) I and II only
(d) II and III only (E) I, II, and III

780. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?

(a) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis
(b) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions
(c) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills
(d) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently

781. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the passage?

(a) An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given
(b) A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced
(c) The results of recent research are introduced and summarized
(d) Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated.

TOTAL

Detailed Solution




Download Free EBooks for GMAT, GRE, ACT, SAT, LSAT, MCAT etc.

1. Passage Reading 2. Verbal Logic 3. Non Verbal Logic 4. Numerical Logic

5. Data Interpretation 6. Reasoning 7. Analytical Ability 8. Basic Numeracy

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120
121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140
141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160
161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180
181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200
201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220
221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240
241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260
261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280
281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300
301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320
321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340
341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360
361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380
381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400
401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419

Tell Your Freind

Your Name:
Your Friends Email Address:
Your Friends Name: