aptitudetests4me.com
Aptitude Tests 4 Me


bulletPassage Reading

bulletVerbal Logic

bulletNon Verbal Logic

bulletNumerical Logic

bulletData Interpretation

bulletReasoning

bulletAnalytical Ability

bulletBasic Numeracy

bulletAbout Us

bulletContact

bulletPrivacy Policy

bulletGoogle Privacy & Terms

bulletSite Map Page

Passage Reading and English Comprehension

Scientists typically advocate the analytic method of studying complex systems: systems are divided into component parts that are investigated separately. But nineteenth-century critics of this method claimed that when a system’s parts are isolated its complexity tends to be lost. To address the perceived weakness of the analytic method these critics put forward a concept called organicism, which posited that the whole determines the nature of its parts and that the parts of a whole are interdependent.

Organicism depended upon the theory of internal relations, which states that relations between entities are possible only within some whole that embraces them, and that entities are altered by the relationships into which they enter. If an entity stands in a relationship with another entity, it has some property as a consequence. Without this relationship, and hence without the property, the entity would be different—and so would be another entity. Thus, the property is one of the entity’s defining characteristics. Each of an entity’s relationships likewise determines a defining characteristic of the entity.

One problem with the theory of internal relations is that not all properties of an entity are defining characteristics: numerous properties are accompanying characteristics—even if they are always present, their presence does not influence the entity’s identity. Thus, even if it is admitted that every relationship into which an entity enters determines some characteristic of the entity, it is not necessarily true that such characteristics will define the entity; it is possible for the entity to enter into a relationship yet remain essentially unchanged.

The ultimate difficulty with the theory of internal relations is that it renders the acquisition of knowledge impossible. To truly know an entity, we must know all of its relationships; but because the entity is related to everything in each whole of which it is a part, these wholes must be known completely before the entity can be known. This seems to be a prerequisite impossible to satisfy.

Organicists’ criticism of the analytic method arose from their failure to fully comprehend the method. In rejecting the analytic method, organicists overlooked the fact that before the proponents of the method analyzed the component parts of a system, they first determined both the laws applicable to the whole system and the initial conditions of the system; proponents of the method thus did not study parts of a system in full isolation from the system as a whole. Since organicists failed to recognize this, they never advanced any argument to show that laws and initial conditions of complex systems cannot be discovered. Hence, organicists offered no valid reason for rejecting the analytic method or for adopting organicism as a replacement for it.

1069. Which one of the following most completely and accurately summarizes the argument of the passage?

(a) By calling into question the possibility that complex systems can be studied in their entirety, organicists offered an alternative to the analytic method favored by nineteenth-century scientists
(b) Organicists did not offer a useful method of studying complex systems because they did not acknowledge that there are relationship into which an entity may enter that do not alter the entity’s identity
(c) Organicism is flawed because it relies on a theory that both ignores the fact that not all characteristics of entities are defining and ultimately makes the acquisition of knowledge impossible
(d) Organicism does not offer a valid challenge to the analytic method both because it relies on faulty theory and because it is based on a misrepresentation of the analytic method.

1070. According to the passage, organicists’ chief objection to the analytic method was that the method

(a) oversimplified systems by isolating their components
(b) assumed that a system can be divided into component parts
(c) ignored the laws applicable to the system as a whole
(d) claimed that the parts of a system are more important than the system as a whole

1071. The passage offers information to help answer each of the following questions EXCEPT:

(a) Why does the theory of internal relations appear to make the acquisition of knowledge impossible?
(b) Why did the organicists propose replacing the analytic method?
(c) What is the difference between a defining characteristic and an accompanying characteristic?
(d) What are some of the advantages of separating out the parts of a system for study?

1072. The passage most strongly supports the ascription of which one of the following views to scientists who use the analytic method?

(a) A complex system is best understood by studying its component parts in full isolation from the system as a whole
(b) The parts of a system should be studied with an awareness of the laws and initial conditions that govern the system
(c) It is not possible to determine the laws governing a system until the system’s parts are separated from one another
(d) Because the parts of a system are interdependent, they cannot be studied separately without destroying the system’s complexity.

1073. Which one of the following is a principle upon which the author bases an argument against the theory of the internal relations?

(a) An adequate theory of complex systems must define the entities of which the system is composed
(b) An acceptable theory cannot have consequences that contradict its basic purpose
(c) An adequate method of study of complex systems should reveal the actual complexity of the system it studies
(d) An acceptable theory must describe the laws and initial conditions of a complex system.

TOTAL

Detailed Solution




Download Free EBooks for GMAT, GRE, ACT, SAT, LSAT, MCAT etc.

1. Passage Reading 2. Verbal Logic 3. Non Verbal Logic 4. Numerical Logic

5. Data Interpretation 6. Reasoning 7. Analytical Ability 8. Basic Numeracy

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120
121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140
141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160
161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180
181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200
201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220
221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240
241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260
261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280
281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300
301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320
321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340
341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360
361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380
381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400
401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419

Tell Your Freind

Your Name:
Your Friends Email Address:
Your Friends Name: