Passage Reading and English Comprehension
(a) By calling into question the possibility that complex systems can be studied in their entirety, organicists offered an alternative to the analytic method favored by nineteenth-century scientists
(b) Organicists did not offer a useful method of studying complex systems because they did not acknowledge that there are relationship into which an entity may enter that do not alter the entity’s identity
(c) Organicism is flawed because it relies on a theory that both ignores the fact that not all characteristics of entities are defining and ultimately makes the acquisition of knowledge impossible
(d) Organicism does not offer a valid challenge to the analytic method both because it relies on faulty theory and because it is based on a misrepresentation of the analytic method.
1070. According to the passage, organicists’ chief objection to the analytic method was that the method
(a) oversimplified systems by isolating their components
(b) assumed that a system can be divided into component parts
(c) ignored the laws applicable to the system as a whole
(d) claimed that the parts of a system are more important than the system as a whole
1071. The passage offers information to help answer each of the following questions EXCEPT:
(a) Why does the theory of internal relations appear to make the acquisition of knowledge impossible?
(b) Why did the organicists propose replacing the analytic method?
(c) What is the difference between a defining characteristic and an accompanying characteristic?
(d) What are some of the advantages of separating out the parts of a system for study?
1072. The passage most strongly supports the ascription of which one of the following views to scientists who use the analytic method?
(a) A complex system is best understood by studying its component parts in full isolation from the system as a whole
(b) The parts of a system should be studied with an awareness of the laws and initial conditions that govern the system
(c) It is not possible to determine the laws governing a system until the system’s parts are separated from one another
(d) Because the parts of a system are interdependent, they cannot be studied separately without destroying the system’s complexity.
1073. Which one of the following is a principle upon which the author bases an argument against the theory of the internal relations?
(a) An adequate theory of complex systems must define the entities of which the system is composed
(b) An acceptable theory cannot have consequences that contradict its basic purpose
(c) An adequate method of study of complex systems should reveal the actual complexity of the system it studies
(d) An acceptable theory must describe the laws and initial conditions of a complex system.
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