aptitudetests4me.com
Aptitude Tests 4 Me


bulletPassage Reading

bulletVerbal Logic

bulletNon Verbal Logic

bulletNumerical Logic

bulletData Interpretation

bulletReasoning

bulletAnalytical Ability

bulletBasic Numeracy

bulletAbout Us

bulletContact

bulletPrivacy Policy

bulletGoogle Privacy & Terms

bulletSite Map Page

Passage Reading and English Comprehension

Between the eighth and eleventh centuries A. D., the Byzantine Empire staged an almost unparalleled economic and cultural revival, a recovery that is all the more striking because it followed a long period of severe internal decline. By the early eighth century, the empire had lost roughly two-thirds of the territory it had possessed in the year 600, and its remaining area was being raided by Arabs and Bulgarians, who at times threatened to take Constantinople and extinguish the empire altogether. The wealth of the state and its subjects was greatly diminished, and artistic and literary production had virtually ceased. By the early eleventh century, however, the empire had regained almost half of its lost possessions, its new frontiers were secure, and its influence extended far beyond its borders. The economy had recovered, the treasury was full, and art and scholarship had advanced.

To consider the Byzantine military, cultural, and economic advances as differentiated aspects of a single phenomenon is reasonable. After all, these three forms of progress have gone together in a number of states and civilizations. Rome under Augustus and fifth-century Athens provide the most obvious examples in antiquity. Moreover, an examination of the apparent sequential connections among military, economic, and cultural forms of progress might help explain the dynamics of historical change.

The common explanation of these apparent connections in the case of Byzantium would run like this: when the empire had turned back enemy raids on its own territory and had begun to raid and conquer enemy territory, Byzantine resources naturally expanded and more money became available to patronize art and literature. Therefore, Byzantine military achievements led to economic advances, which in turn led to cultural revival.

No doubt this hypothetical pattern did apply at times during the course of the recovery. Yet it is not clear that military advances invariably came first, economic advances second, and intellectual advances third. In the 860’s the Byzantine Empire began to recover from Arab incursions so that by 872 the military balance with the Abbasid Caliphate had been permanently altered in the empire’s favor. The beginning of the empire’s economic revival, however, can be placed between 810 and 830. Finally, the Byzantine revival of learning appears to have begun even earlier.

A number of notable scholars and writers appeared by 788 and, by the last decade of the eighth century, a cultural revival was in full bloom, a revival that lasted until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Thus the commonly expected order of military revival followed by economic and then by cultural recovery was reversed in Byzantium. In fact, the revival of Byzantine learning may itself have influenced the subsequent economic and military expansion.

273. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?

(a) The Byzantine Empire was a unique case in which the usual order of military and economic revival preceding cultural revival was reversed.
(b) The economic, cultural, and military revival in the Byzantine Empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries was similar in its order to the sequence of revivals in Augustan Rome and fifth century Athens.
(c) The revival of the Byzantine Empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries shows cultural rebirth preceding economic and military revival, the reverse of the commonly accepted order of progress.
(d) The eighth-century revival of Byzantine learning is an inexplicable phenomenon, and its economic and military precursors have yet to be discovered.

274. The primary purpose of the second paragraph is which of the following?

(a) To establish the uniqueness of the Byzantine revival
(b) To show that Augustan Rome and fifth-century Athens are examples of cultural, economic, and military expansion against which all subsequent cases must be measured
(c) To suggest that cultural, economic, and military advances have tended to be closely interrelated in different societies
(d) To argue that, while the revivals of Augustan Rome and fifth-century Athens were similar, they are unrelated to other historical examples

275. It can be inferred from the passage that by the eleventh century the Byzantine military forces

(a) had reached their peak and begun to decline
(b) had eliminated the Bulgarian army
(c) were comparable in size to the army of Rome under Augustus
(d) were strong enough to withstand the Abbasid Caliphate’s military forces

276. It can be inferred from the passage that the Byzantine Empire sustained significant territorial losses

(a) in 600
(b) during the seventh century
(c) a century after the cultural achievements of the Byzantine Empire had been lost
(d) soon after the revival of Byzantine learning

277. In the third paragraph, the author most probably provides an explanation of the apparent connections among economic, military, and cultural development in order to

(a) suggest that the process of revival in Byzantium accords with this model
(b) set up an order of events that is then shown to be not generally applicable to the case of Byzantium
(c) cast aspersions on traditional historical scholarship about Byzantium
(d) suggest that Byzantium represents a case for which no historical precedent exists

278. Which of the following does the author mention as crucial evidence concerning the manner in which the Byzantine revival began?

(a) The Byzantine military revival of the 860’s led to economic and cultural advances.
(b) The Byzantine cultural revival lasted until 1453.
(c) The Byzantine economic recovery began in the 900’s.
(d) The revival of Byzantine learning began toward the end of the eighth century.

279. According to the author, “The common explanation” of connections between economic, military, and cultural development is

(a) revolutionary and too new to have been applied to the history of the Byzantine Empire
(b) reasonable, but an antiquated theory of the nature of progress
(c) not applicable to the Byzantine revival as a whole, but does perhaps accurately describe limited periods during the revival
(d) equally applicable to the Byzantine case as a whole and to the history of military, economic, and cultural advances in ancient Greece and Rome

TOTAL

Detailed Solution




Download Free EBooks for GMAT, GRE, ACT, SAT, LSAT, MCAT etc.

1. Passage Reading 2. Verbal Logic 3. Non Verbal Logic 4. Numerical Logic

5. Data Interpretation 6. Reasoning 7. Analytical Ability 8. Basic Numeracy

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120
121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140
141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160
161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180
181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200
201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220
221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240
241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260
261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280
281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300
301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320
321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340
341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360
361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380
381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400
401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419

Tell Your Freind

Your Name:
Your Friends Email Address:
Your Friends Name: